Sudan republic is an Arab/African country, lies close to the far northern Africa continent and bordering on Ethiopia and Eritrea on the east, Egypt and Libya on the north, Chad and Central Africa countries on the west and South Sudan country on the South. The term (Sudan land), originally refers to the sub-continent Sahara stretching west from the Atlantic Ocean straight to the Red Sea, and east towards the Indian Ocean. Currently, the term denotes the area lies south Egypt, or rather the central Nile basin. Sudan is located in the midway between Africa and Arab countries; this endows the country a unique advantage as a key transit -conjuncture between northern and southern regions of Africa, noting that Sudan had been till the mid-twenty century the main passage for Muslim pilgrims, en- route to the holy lands in Saudi Arabia, together with the trade conveys heading form western Africa for Saudi Arabia and Eastern Africa.
Location & Area
Sudan lies on north eastern Africa, between 22.4 latitude north equator and 38.22 longitude, in the midway between Africa and the Arab world. This endows the country a unique privilege as a key transit -conjuncture between northern and southern regions of Africa, noting that Sudan had been till the mid-twenty century the main passage for Muslim pilgrims, en- route to the holy lands in Saudi Arabia, together with the trade conveys heading form western Africa for Saudi Arabia and Eastern Africa. The total area of Sudan is nearly (1.882, 000) million km. square), thus; constitutes one of largest African countries and ranking the 16th among the biggest area countries worldwide. Area wise, Sudan is the second largest African country, preceded by Algeria and likewise the largest Arab country, following both Saudi Arabia and Algeria. The country land area is 1,752,187 km., while its maritime area is 129,813 km.
The capital Khartoum is made up of three cities; Khartoum, is the administrative and political capital, Omdurman which is regarded as the popular capital, while Khartoum North (Bahri) represents the industrial capital.
The tropical climate is predominant in Sudan, with higher temperatures in most the year. Generally, the climate is very dry in the extreme north, versus semi-humid in the south, while its desert and semi-desert, throughout the sates of the Northern, North Kordofan and North darfur and rainy across the central and southern regions. Most of the Sudan soil is characterized by flat plains, with heights found in the east, along with Nuba Mountain series and Jebel Mara Mountains in the west. The county is situated between 8.45 and 23.8 latitudes on the north and between 21.49 and 38.24 longitudes on the east. The annual rate of rainfall is almost zero in the extreme north, whereas the annual rate in the rest parts of the country is ranging between 500 and 1000 mm. The river Nile, coupled with its various steams, plays a vital role in Sudan socio-economic and cultural sphere, alongside its effects on foreign relations. The waters of the Nile and its steams are usually exploited in electricity generation via a set of dams; include Rouseris, Khash algebra, Sinar, Jebel awlia and Marwai. Besides, the river waters constitute a major source for navigation and fishing. The groundwater survivor is estimated at around 900 billion cubic meters, potential for urban purposes
(THE TOTAL NUMBER OF SUDAN POPULATION IS 33.419.625)
The total area of Sudan is some (1.882.000 km. square); making the country one of the largest African countries, and comes in the 16th rank among the largest area countries worldwide. Area wise, Sudan is the second largest African country, following Algeria and the third Arab country following Saudi Arabia and Algeria. Sudan earth area is 1.752.187 km. square, while the sea area is 129.813 square. Sudan population is made up of Arab, African and Nubian –descendent tribes. According to the early 2011 estimates.
Islam, Christianity and local faiths.
Arabic, together with local languages and dialects.
TOURISM & ANTIQUITIES
Sudan is rich with a variety of tourism constituents, thanks to the country diverse cultural, geographical and historical particularities. The north region accommodates the ancient Nubian kingdoms antiquities that constitute the cradle of human civilization, as reflected in Pharaonic temples and pyramids. In the eastern parts of the country, the earth merges with the Red Sea waters which characterized by the unique coral islands; the habitat of coloured fish and resort of sea diving fans. The sand deserts stretch endlessly in the western territories, alongside with the violinic apexes, amid Mediterranean-like climate. Moreover, the cultural tourism is attracted by the diverse ethnical and tribal events, with distinctive traditional music and dress shows.
MAJOR CITIES & TOWNS
Port Sudan is a coastal city in north eastern Sudan, positioned on the western Red Sea coast above 2 meters (6.6 feet) of the sea level. The city- some 675 km (419) distance away from the capital Khartoum- is the primary country sea port, and capital of the Red Sea State.
Shandi lies in the River Nile State, some 360 meters (1181 feet) above the sea level and around 150 km (93 mile) distance from the capital Khartoum and 45 km (27.9 miles) distance from the ancient Marwari antiquities site.
Sinar town lies in Sinar state in central Sudan on the western bank of the Blue Nile, some 427 meters above the sea level. The town, which had been for centuries the capital of the Blue Sultanate, is 280 km distance south the capital Khartoum.
Neyalla lies in the western part of sudan; south the mara mountain plateau is nearly 900 km distance from Khartoum, and some 673 meters above the sea level. the town, where the railways lines heading for the west ended up, is a crossroads from eastern to western Sudan and from its northern to southern parts alike.
The town, the capital of the Northern State some 530 km (329 miles) distance south the capital Khartoum, lies on the western bank of the river Nile, at 227 meters (745 feet) above the sea level. Dongolla is the oldest town in the region, centering an area rich with ancient Sudan civilizations antiquities.
The town situated in the center of north kordofan state, at 650 meters (2133 feet) above the sea level and some 588 km (365 miles) distance south west the capital khartoum.
Madenni is the capital of Ghazira state, lies short distance south the capital Khartoum and accommodated the Ghazira project, the biggest irrigated agricultural project in Sudan